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A graphics processing unit GPU is a specialized electronic circuit designed to rapidly manipulate and alter memory to accelerate the creation of images in a frame buffer intended for output to a display device. GPUs are used in embedded systemsmobile phonespersonal computersworkstationsand game consoles. Modern GPUs are very efficient at manipulating computer graphics and image processingand their highly parallel structure makes them more efficient than general-purpose CPUs for algorithms where the processing of large blocks of data is done in parallel.
Arcade system boards have been using specialized graphics chips since the s. In early video game hardware, the RAM for frame buffers was expensive, so video chips composited data together as the display was being scanned out on the monitor. Fujitsu 's MB video shifter was used to accelerate the drawing of sprite graphics for various s arcade games from Taito and Midwaysuch as Gun FightSea Wolf and Space Invaders In the home market, the Atari in used a video shifter called the Television Interface Adaptor.
It became one of the best known of what were known as graphics processing units in the s. The Williams Electronics arcade games RobotronJoustSinistarand Bubblesall released incontain custom blitter chips for operating on color bitmaps. Inthe Commodore Amiga featured a custom graphics chip, with a blitter unit accelerating bitmap manipulation, line draw, and area fill functions. Also included is a coprocessor commonly referred to as "The Copper" with its own primitive instruction set, capable of manipulating graphics hardware registers in sync with the video beam e.
InTexas Instruments released the TMSthe first microprocessor with on-chip graphics capabilities. It could run general-purpose code, but it had a very graphics-oriented instruction set. Inthe IBM graphics system was released as one of [ vague ] the first video cards for IBM PC compatibles to implement fixed-function 2D primitives in electronic hardware.
The same year, Sharp released the Xwhich used a custom graphics chipset  that was powerful for a forum daily options 99 binary have obtained and with it like watching a graphic examples of binary o computer at the time, with a 65, color palette and hardware support for sprites, scrolling and multiple playfields,  eventually serving as a development machine for Capcom 's CP System arcade board.
Fujitsu later competed with the FM Towns computer, released in with support for a full 16, color palette. Inthe first dedicated polygonal 3D graphics boards were introduced in arcades with the Namco System 21  and Taito Air System. InS3 Graphics introduced the S3 86Cwhich its designers named after the Porsche as an indication of the performance increase it promised. Throughout the s, 2D GUI acceleration continued to evolve.
As manufacturing capabilities improved, so did the level of integration of graphics chips. Additional application programming interfaces APIs arrived for a variety of tasks, such as Microsoft's WinG graphics library for Windows 3. In the early- and mids, real-time 3D graphics were becoming increasingly common in arcade, computer and console games, which led to an increasing public demand for hardware-accelerated 3D graphics.
Early examples of mass-market 3D graphics hardware can be found in arcade system boards such as the Sega Model 1Namco System 22and Sega Model 2and the fifth-generation video game consoles such as the SaturnPlayStation and Nintendo forum daily options 99 binary have obtained and with it like watching a graphic examples of binary o These chips were essentially previous-generation 2D accelerators with 3D features bolted on.
Many were even pin-compatible with the earlier-generation chips for ease of implementation and minimal cost. Initially, performance 3D graphics were possible only with discrete boards dedicated to accelerating 3D functions and lacking 2D GUI acceleration entirely such as the PowerVR and the 3dfx Voodoo. However, as manufacturing technology continued to progress, video, 2D GUI acceleration and 3D functionality were all integrated into one chip.
Rendition's Verite chipsets were among the first to do this well enough to be worthy of note. This card, designed to reduce the load placed upon the system's CPU, never made it to market. OpenGL appeared in the early '90s as a professional graphics API, but originally suffered from performance issues which allowed the Glide API to step in and become a dominant force on the PC in the late '90s.
Software implementations of OpenGL were common during this time, although the influence of OpenGL eventually led to widespread hardware support. Over time, a parity emerged between features offered in hardware and those offered in OpenGL. DirectX became popular among Windows game developers during the late 90s. Unlike OpenGL, Microsoft insisted on providing strict one-to-one support of hardware.
The approach made DirectX less popular as a standalone graphics API initially, since many GPUs provided their own specific features, which existing OpenGL applications were already able to benefit from, leaving DirectX often one generation behind. Over time, Microsoft began to work more closely with hardware developers, and started to target the releases of DirectX to coincide with those of the supporting graphics hardware.
Hardware transform and lighting, both already existing features of OpenGL, came to consumer-level hardware in the '90s and set the precedent for later pixel shader and vertex shader units which were far more flexible and programmable. Nvidia was first to produce a chip capable of programmable shadingthe GeForce 3 code named NV Each pixel could now be processed by a short "program" that could include additional image textures as inputs, and each geometric vertex could likewise be processed by a short program before it was projected onto the screen.
It is interesting to note that the earliest incarnations of shader execution engines used in Xbox were not general purpose and could not execute arbitrary pixel code.
Vertices and pixels were processed by different units which had their own resources with pixel shaders having much tighter constraints being as they are executed at much higher frequencies than with vertices. Pixel shading engines were actually more akin to a highly customizable function block and didn't really "run" a program. Many of these disparities between vertex and pixel shading wouldn't be addressed until much later with the Unified Shader Model.
Pixel shading is often used for bump mappingwhich adds texture, to make an object look shiny, dull, rough, or even round or extruded.
With the introduction of the GeForce 8 serieswhich was produced by Nvidia, and then new generic stream processing unit GPUs became a more generalized computing device. Today, parallel GPUs have begun making computational inroads against the CPU, and a subfield of research, dubbed GPU Computing or GPGPU for General Purpose Computing on GPUhas found its way into fields forum daily options 99 binary have obtained and with it like watching a graphic examples of binary o diverse as machine learning oil explorationscientific image processinglinear algebra statistics 3D reconstruction and even stock options pricing determination.
GPGPU at the time was the precursor to what we now call compute shaders forum daily options 99 binary have obtained and with it like watching a graphic examples of binary o. CUDA, OpenCL, DirectCompute and actually abused the hardware to a degree by treating the data passed to algorithms as texture maps and executing algorithms by drawing a triangle or quad with an appropriate pixel shader.
This obviously entails some overheads since we involve units like the Scan Converter where they aren't really needed nor do we even care about the triangles, except to invoke the pixel shader.
Over the years, the energy consumption of GPUs has increased and to manage it, several techniques have been proposed. More forum daily options 99 binary have obtained and with it like watching a graphic examples of binary o OpenCL has become broadly supported. InNvidia began a partnership with Audi to power their cars' dashboards. These Tegra GPUs were powering the cars' dashboard, offering increased functionality to cars' navigation and entertainment systems.
A new feature in this new GPU microarchitecture included GPU boost, a technology adjusts the clock-speed of a video card to increase or decrease it according to its power draw. The GeForce 10 series of cards are under this generation of graphics cards. Changes from the Titan XP, Pascal's high-end card, include an increase in the number of CUDA cores, the addition of tensor cores, and high-bandwidth memory.
Tensor cores are cores specially designed for deep learning, while high-bandwidth memory is on-die, stacked, lower-clocked memory that offers an extremely wide memory bus that is useful for the Titan V's intended purpose.
Their release results in a substantial increase in the performance per watt of AMD video cards. Many companies have produced GPUs under a number of brand names. However, those numbers include Intel's integrated graphics solutions as GPUs. Modern GPUs use most of their transistors to do calculations related to 3D computer graphics. GPUs were initially used to accelerate the memory-intensive work of texture mapping and rendering polygons, later adding units to accelerate geometric calculations such as the rotation and translation of vertices into different coordinate systems.
Recent developments in GPUs include support for programmable shaders which can manipulate vertices and textures with many of the same operations supported by CPUsoversampling and interpolation techniques to reduce aliasingand very high-precision color spaces. Because most of these computations involve matrix and vector operations, engineers and scientists have increasingly studied the use of GPUs for non-graphical calculations; they are especially suited to other embarrassingly parallel problems.
With the emergence of deep learning, the importance of GPUs has increased. In a research done by Indigo, it was found that while training a deep learning neural networks, GPUs can be times faster than CPUs. That's a difference between one day of training and almost 8 months and 10 days of training. The explosive growth of Deep Learning in recent years has been attributed to the emergence of general purpose GPUs.
As AI applications mature, data for training models is not necessarily ordered in the neat, array-based, data that GPUs are best at handling, so FPGAs are also used for rapidly processing repetitive functions.
This process of hardware accelerated video decodingwhere portions of the video decoding process and video post-processing are offloaded to the GPU hardware, is commonly referred to as "GPU accelerated video decoding", "GPU assisted video decoding", "GPU hardware accelerated video decoding" or "GPU hardware assisted video decoding". More recent graphics cards even decode high-definition video on the card, offloading the central processing unit.
In personal computers, there are two main forms of GPUs. Each has many synonyms: The GPUs of the most powerful class typically interface with the motherboard by means of an expansion slot such as PCI Express PCIe or Accelerated Graphics Port AGP and can usually be replaced or upgraded with relative ease, assuming the motherboard is forum daily options 99 binary have obtained and with it like watching a graphic examples of binary o of supporting the upgrade.
A dedicated GPU is not necessarily removable, nor does it necessarily interface with the motherboard in a standard fashion. The term "dedicated" refers to the fact that dedicated graphics cards have RAM that is dedicated to the card's use, not forum daily options 99 binary have obtained and with it like watching a graphic examples of binary o the fact that most dedicated GPUs are removable. Dedicated GPUs for portable computers are most commonly interfaced through a non-standard and often proprietary slot due to size and weight constraints.
Such ports may still be considered PCIe or AGP in terms of their logical host interface, even if they are not physically interchangeable with their counterparts. Integrated graphicsshared graphics solutionsintegrated graphics processors IGP or unified memory architecture UMA utilize a portion of a computer's system RAM rather than dedicated graphics memory.
This is a separate fixed block of high performance memory that is dedicated for use by the GPU. Historically, integrated processing was often considered unfit to play 3D games or run graphically intensive programs but could run less intensive programs such as Adobe Flash. As a GPU is extremely memory intensive, integrated processing may find itself competing with the CPU for the relatively slow system RAM, as it has minimal or no dedicated video memory.
IGPs can have up to This bandwidth is what is referred to as the memory bus and can be performance limiting. This newer class of GPUs competes with integrated graphics in the low-end desktop and notebook markets.
Hybrid graphics cards are somewhat more expensive than integrated graphics, but much less expensive than dedicated graphics cards. These share memory with the system and have a small dedicated memory cache, to make up for the high latency of the system RAM. Technologies within PCI Express can make this possible.
While these solutions are sometimes advertised as having as much as MB of RAM, this refers to how much can be shared with the system memory. It is becoming increasingly common to use a general purpose graphics processing unit GPGPU as a modified form of stream processor or a vector processorrunning compute kernels. This concept turns the massive computational power of a modern graphics accelerator's shader pipeline into general-purpose computing power, as opposed to being hard wired solely to do graphical operations.
In certain applications requiring massive vector operations, this can yield several orders of magnitude higher performance than a conventional CPU. The two largest discrete see " Dedicated graphics cards " above GPU designers, AMD and Nvidiaare beginning to pursue this approach with an array of applications.
In certain circumstances the GPU calculates forty times faster than the conventional CPUs traditionally used by such applications. GPGPU can be used for many types of embarrassingly parallel tasks including ray tracing. They are generally suited to high-throughput type computations that exhibit data-parallelism to exploit the wide vector width SIMD architecture of the GPU.
Furthermore, GPU-based high performance computers are starting to play a significant role in large-scale modelling. Three of the 10 most powerful supercomputers in the world take advantage of GPU acceleration. These technologies allow specified functions called compute kernels from a normal C program to run on the GPU's stream processors.